AMT IJ-WNT4 Driver
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AMT IJ-WNT4 Driver
There are three points of de novo neural tube fusion in the mouse, which is the most studied AMT IJ-WNT4 model [ ]; see Figure 2 a. Closure 1 occurs adjacent to somite 3 in embryos with somites and progresses rostrally AMT IJ-WNT4 caudally, closure 2 occurs at the midbrain-forebrain boundary at around the somite stage and progresses caudally, and closure 3 occurs at the rostral end of AMT IJ-WNT4 forebrain, soon after closure 2.
Figure 2: Points of closure in the mouse embryo and phenotypes of failure of closure of the various points along the neuraxis. Closure 1 is the initiation event of neurulation.
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Closure then progresses caudally and is completed by closure of the posterior neuropore PNP at the somite stage of development; AMT IJ-WNT4second closure site at around the somite stage; 3closure 3 AMT IJ-WNT4 which begins soon after closure 2. Arrows depict spreading of neural tube closure to neighbouring regions with completion of anterior neuropore closure soon after initiation of closure 3 and closure of the hindbrain neuropore at the 18—somite stage.
Considering this discontinuous process of neurulation, it can be understood why NTDs are such a complex group of heterogeneous birth defects, with various phenotypic presentations. During neurulation, the neuroepithelium must undergo various structural changes in order to achieve closure. The advent of molecular biology has allowed scientists to identify the genes that are required AMT IJ-WNT4 these structural changes to occur.
The next section AMT IJ-WNT4 a brief overview of the research to date on how gene expression affects structural changes in neural tube development, with an emphasis on gene regulation in the AMT IJ-WNT4 region.
The Structural Changes of the Mouse Neural Tube during the Process of AMT IJ-WNT4 Morphologically, the mouse neural tube undergoes distinct AMT IJ-WNT4 changes prior to its closure [ 7, — ]. A summary of the spatiotemporal expression of genes in the mouse neural tube during neurulation is as shown in Table 5.
The neuroepithelium narrows and lengthens, a process referred to as convergent extension Figure 3 ain which the polarized cells which form the neuroepithelial plate converge towards the midline, AMT IJ-WNT4 anteroposteriorly, and then intercalate [AMT IJ-WNT4. Figure 3: Schematic representation of the formation of the mouse spinal neural tube.
Convergent extension leads to narrowing and lengthening of the neuroepithelium, a process that has been suggested also to assist neural fold elevation AMT IJ-WNT4 axial elongation [— ]. However, the lengthening of the body axis is disrupted by manipulation of gene function required for convergent extension; whilst the neural folds are still AMT IJ-WNT4 to elevate, convergent extension still fails [, ].
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Hence, convergent extension and neural fold elevation are separable processes. Elevation of AMT IJ-WNT4 neural folds at high levels of the spinal neuraxis results from the formation of a median hinge point MHP Figure 3 b in a process termed Mode 1 neurulation [, ]. The neural folds remain straight along both AMT IJ-WNT4 and basal surfaces, resulting in a AMT IJ-WNT4 tube with a slit-shaped lumen. Mode 1 neurulation occurs during AMT IJ-WNT4 of the spinal neural tube in 6—somite stage embryos, as shown in Figures 4 a and 4 b.
Figure 4: Schematic figure showing progressive developmental stages of the mouse embryo and sections through the PNP at these stages. A second set of hinge points are formed dorsolaterally at more caudal levels of the spinal neuraxis, the dorsolateral hinge points DLHPsa process that appears to enhance the ability of the apposing tips of the neural folds to come close to each other Figure 3 c.
Mode 2 occurs AMT IJ-WNT4 formulation of the spinal neural tube in 12—somite stage embryos and generates a diamond-shaped lumen, as depicted in Figures 4 c and 4 d. In Mode 2, a median hinge point is also present, whereas the AMT IJ-WNT4 portions of the neuroepithelium do not bend.
At the AMT IJ-WNT4 stage, the neural tube closes without a median hinge point, whereas dorsolateral hinge points are retained. This is known as Mode 3 neurulation and generates an almost AMT IJ-WNT4 shaped lumen, as shown in Figures 4 e and 4 f.
Adhesion of the tips of the apposing neural folds is the final step in primary neurulation, enabling the neural AMT IJ-WNT4 to AMT IJ-WNT4 its closure [ ]. The tips of the apposing neural folds and the eventual point of adhesion are reported to contain cell to cell recognition molecules as demonstrated in red in Figure 3 c which may be required for the specific adhesion process to occur [ — ]. This is supported by previous evidence that the cell surface AMT IJ-WNT4 the neuroepithelium is lined by carbohydrate-rich material that is not observed in the rest of the neuroepithelium [ ].